It is bounded and defined by the Carpathian Mountains to the east and south, and the Apuseni Mountains to the west.
As a diverse and relatively protected region, the area has always been rich in wildlife, and remains one of the more ecologically diverse areas in Europe.
The onset of the Aurignacian culture seems to have paralleled the late Mousterian facies in the Carpathian caves, if we accept as valid the C14 dating of level IIb in the cave of Gura Cheii – Râşnov.
Consequently, this historical period could be associated with the interval between 13,000 and about 9,500-9,000 BP.
The same cannot be said about the discoveries in the Ciucului Basin at Sândominic (Harghita County) where several tools, and a rich fauna, have been encountered in certified stratigraphic positions, belonging to the geo-chronological interval covering the late Mindel to the early Riss.